Saturday, 28 April 2018

संसद भाग -3 PARLIAMENT with tricks | indian polity by laxmikant in hindi...



sessions of parliament -
Summoning
The president from time to time sumons each House of Parliament to meet.
But, the maximum gap between two sessions of Parliament cannot be more
than six months. In other words, the Parliament should meet at least twice a
year. There are usually three sessions in a year, viz,
1. the Budget Session (February to May);
2. the Monsoon Session (July to September); and
3. the Winter Session (November to December).
A ‘session’ of Parliament is the period spanning between the first sitting of
a House and its prorogation (or dissolution in the case of the Lok Sabha).
During a session, the House meets everyday to transact business. The period
spanning between the prorogation of a House and its reassembly in a new
session is called ‘recess’.
Adjournment
A session of Parliament consists of many meetings. Each meeting of a day
consists of two sittings, that is, a morning sitting from 11 am to 1 pm and
post-lunch sitting from 2 pm to 6 pm. A sitting of Parliament can be
terminated by adjournment or adjournment sine die or prorogation or
dissolution (in the case of the Lok Sabha). An adjournment suspends the
work in a sitting for a specified time, which may be hours, days or weeks.
Dissolution
Rajya Sabha, being a permanent House, is not subject to dissolution. Only the
Lok Sabha is subject to dissolution. Unlike a prorogation, a dissolution ends
the very life of the existing House, and a new House is constituted after
general elections are held. The dissolution of the Lok Sabha may take place
in either of two ways:
1. Automatic dissolution, that is, on the expiry of its tenure of five years or
the terms as extended during a national emergency; or
2. Whenever the President decides to dissolve the House, which he is
authorised to do. Once the Lok Sabha is dissolved before the completion
of its normal tenure, the dissolution is irrevocable.
When the Lok Sabha is dissolved, all business including bills, motions,
resolutions, notices, petitions and so on pending before it or its committees
lapse. They (to be pursued further) must be reintroduced in the newly-
constituted Lok Sabha. However, some pending bills and all pending
assurances that are to be examined by the Committee on Government
Assurances do not lapse on the dissolution of the Lok Sabha. The position
with respect to lapsing of bills is as follows:
1. A bill pending in the Lok Sabha lapses (whether originating in the Lok
Sabha or transmitted to it by the Rajya Sabha).
2. A bill passed by the Lok Sabha but pending in the Rajya Sabha lapses.
3. A bill not passed by the two Houses due to disagreement and if the
president has notified the holding of a joint sitting before the dissolution
of Lok Sabha, does not lapse.
4. A bill pending in the Rajya Sabha but not passed by the Lok Sabha does
not lapse.
5. A bill passed by both Houses but pending assent of the president does not
lapse.
6. A bill passed by both Houses but returned by the president for
reconsideration of Houses does not lapse.
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Voting in House
All matters at any sitting of either House or joint sitting of both the Houses
are decided by a majority of votes of the members present and voting,
excluding the presiding officer. Only a few matters, which are specifically
mentioned in the Constitution like impeachment of the President, amendment
of the Constitution, removal of the presiding officers of the Parliament and so
on, require special majority, not ordinary majority.
The presiding officer of a House does not vote in the first instance, but
exercises a casting vote in the case of an equality of votes. The proceedings
of a House are to be valid irrespective of any unauthorised voting or
participation or any vacancy in its membership.
The following points can be noted with respect to the voting procedure in
the Lok Sabha :
1. On the conclusion of a debate, the Speaker shall put the question and
invite those who are in favour of the motion to say ‘Aye’ and those
against the motion to say ‘No’.
Language in Parliament
The Constitution has declared Hindi and English to be the languages for
transacting business in the Parliament.
Rights of Ministers andAttorney General
In addition to the members of a House, every minister and the attorney
general of India have the right to speak and take part in the proceedings of
either House, any joint sitting of both the Houses and any committee of
Parliament of which he is a member, without being entitled to vote
Lame-duck Session
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